A Good Time to Remember

Michael Metzger

The Englishman Samuel Johnson said people more often need to be reminded than informed. The Thanksgiving holiday comes to mind. The hagiography masks the harsh conditions that led to the Puritans giving thanks.

In 1620, James I granted a charter to the grand council of Plymouth, for governing New England. That fall, one-hundred-and-three Pilgrims, with roughly another thirty crew boarded the aging sailing vessel Mayflower for the New World. Sailing against the North Atlantic’s prevailing Westerlies, the voyage from England to America took over two months. It was brutal. Upon arrival on November 21, the Pilgrims signed the Mayflower Compact.

In the name of God, Amen. We, whose names are underwritten, the Loyal Subjects of our dread Sovereign Lord, King James, by the Grace of God, of England, France and Ireland, King, Defender of the Faith, etc.

Having undertaken for the Glory of God, and Advancement of the Christian Faith, and the Honour of our King and Country, a voyage to plant the first colony in the northern parts of Virginia; do by these presents, solemnly and mutually in the Presence of God and one of another, covenant and combine ourselves together into a civil Body Politick, for our better Ordering and Preservation, and Furtherance of the Ends aforesaid; And by Virtue hereof to enact, constitute, and frame, such just and equal Laws, Ordinances, Acts, Constitutions and Offices, from time to time, as shall be thought most meet and convenient for the General good of the Colony; unto which we promise all due submission and obedience.

In Witness whereof we have hereunto subscribed our names at Cape Cod the eleventh of November, in the Reign of our Sovereign Lord, King James of England, France and Ireland, the eighteenth, and of Scotland the fifty-fourth. Anno Domini, 1620.

John Carver
William Bradford

Then they went ashore. The landing party laid out the village of Plymouth and made contact with the Wampanoag Indians. They also met Manasoit, who introduced them to Squanto. Within a month, six Pilgrims had died. In January 1621, eight more Pilgrims died and fire destroyed the roof of the common house. The next month, seventeen more Pilgrims died. There were only five men able to care for the sick. The dead were buried at night so the Indians wouldn’t discover the horrific losses.

In March 1621, thirteen more Pilgrims died, bringing the total to forty-seven dead. Thirteen out of eighteen wives had now passed away. Only three families remained unbroken.

In April 1621, Squanto taught the Pilgrims how to plant maize, beans, and squash. In May, the first wedding took place (widower Edward Winslow and the widow, Susanna White). In October, the Pilgrims enjoyed their first good harvest. Governor Bradford declared a public Thanksgiving. The Pilgrims shared a great harvest feast with the Native Americans in Plymouth, Massachusetts. It is described in a firsthand account presumably written by a leader of the colony, Edward Winslow, as it appears in Mourt’s Relation:

Our harvest being gotten in, our governor sent four men on fowling, that so we might after a special manner rejoice together after we had gathered the fruit of our labors. They four in one day killed as much fowl as, with a little help beside, served the company almost a week. At which time, amongst other recreations, we exercised our arms, many of the Indians coming amongst us, and among the rest their greatest King Massasoit, with some ninety men, whom for three days we entertained and feasted, and they went out and killed five deer, which they brought to the plantation and bestowed on our governor, and upon the captain and others. And although it be not always so plentiful as it was this time with us, yet by the goodness of God, we are so far from want that we often wish you partakers of our plenty.

From this we know that the feast went on for three days. It included ninety Native Americans and had plentiful food. But plentitude was not the chief reason for the Pilgrims’ gratitude. They believed God was good in plenty and in poverty, in sickness and in health. Their gratitude was grounded in a good God, regardless of harsh conditions and terrible losses. It’s a story worth remembering this Thanksgiving holiday.

Follow me on Twitter: @Metzger_Mike


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  1. Meanwhile, I’m seeing ever-increasing “memes” framing Thanksgiving as evidence of Christian hypocrisy, ISIS-like brutality and even Christian “terrorism.”

    Any thoughts out there on a thoughtful response to help re-frame that conversation?

    I’m seeing this also with respect to Christmas, in which Mary & Joseph are pictured as refugees in Bethlehem (for some reason), rather than in Egypt. . . . Today, too, I saw mention of one “Anders Breivik”, who is being identified as a Christian terrorist, yes, I had to Google it, too.

    This seems a change in the line of attack. Thoughts?

  2. Interesting flag, marble. Deconstructing the filters and triggers is very much dependent on motives and interests.Noting that, apparently more US citizens die from gun crime than any other violent act.

  3. Marble:

    Like all of us, the Puritans and Pilgrims were flawed people. What some call hypocrisy is often a blind spot. Guilty as charged. However, there is another blind spot more pernicious in likening the Puritans’ conduct to ISIS and terrorism. That trivializes terrorism.

    For a fuller picture of the Christian faith and its flawed but very often fruitful contributions to society, I urge friends to read Rodney Stark’s “For The Glory of God: How Monotheism Led to Reformations, Science, Witch-Hunts, and the End of Slavery” (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2003).

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